TULISSIN 100- tulathromycin injection, solution
Virbac AH, Inc.
For use in beef cattle (including suckling calves), non-lactating dairy cattle (including dairy calves), veal calves, and swine.Not for use in female dairy cattle 20 months of age or older.
CAUTION: Federal (USA) law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian.
TULISSIN 100 Injectable Solution is a ready-to-use sterile parenteral preparation containing tulathromycin, a semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic of the subclass triamilide. Each mL of TULISSIN 100 contains 100 mg of tulathromycin, 500 mg propylene glycol, 19.2 mg citric acid and 5 mg monothioglycerol. Sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid may be added to adjust pH. TULISSIN 100 consists of an equilibrated mixture of two isomeric forms of tulathromycin in a 9:1 ratio. Structures of the isomers are shown below.
The chemical names of the isomers are (2R,3S, 4R, 5R, 8R, 10R, 11R, 12S, 13S, 14R)-13-[[2,6-dideoxy-3-C-methyl-3-O-methyl-4-C-[(propylamino) methyl]-α-L-ribo-hexopyranosyl]oxy]-2-ethyl-3,4,10-trihydroxy-3, 5,8,10,12,14-hexamethyl-11-[[3,4,6-trideoxy-3-(dimethylamino)-β-D-xylo-hexopyranosyl]-oxy]-1-oxa-6-azacyclopentadecan-15-one and (2R, 3R,6R,8R,9R,10S,11S,12R)-11-[[2,6-dideoxy-3-C-methyl-3-O-methyl-4-C-[(propylamino)methyl]-α-L-ribo-hexopyranosyl]oxy]-2-[(1R,2R)-1,2-dihydroxy-1-methylbutyl]-8-hydroxy-3,6,8,10,12-pentamethyl-9-[[3,4,6-trideoxy-3-(dimethylamino)-β-D-xylo-hexopyranosyl]oxy]-1-oxa-4-azacyclotridecan-13-one, respectively.
Beef and Non-Lactating Dairy Cattle
BRD — TULISSIN 100 Injectable Solution is indicated for the treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, and Mycoplasma bovis ; and for the control of respiratory disease in cattle at high risk of developing BRD associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, and Mycoplasma bovis.
IBK — TULISSIN 100 Injectable Solution is indicated for the treatment of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) associated with Moraxella bovis.
Foot Rot — TULISSIN 100 Injectable Solution is indicated for the treatment of bovine foot rot (interdigital necrobacillosis) associated with Fusobacterium necrophorum and Porphyromonas levii.
Suckling Calves, Dairy Calves, and Veal Calves
BRD — TULISSIN 100 Injectable Solution is indicated for the treatment of BRD associated with M. haemolytica, P. multocida, H. somni, and M. bovis.
TULISSIN 100 Injectable Solution is indicated for the treatment of swine respiratory disease (SRD) associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Haemophilus parasuis, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae ; and for the control of SRD associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in groups of pigs where SRD has been diagnosed.
Inject subcutaneously as a single dose in the neck at a dosage of 2.5 mg/kg (1.1 mL/100 lb) body weight (BW).Do not inject more than 10 mL per injection site.
Inject intramuscularly as a single dose in the neck at a dosage of 2.5 mg/kg (0.25 mL/22 lb) BW.Do not inject more than 2.5 mL per injection site.
The use of TULISSIN 100 Injectable Solution is contraindicated in animals previously found to be hypersensitive to the drug.
WARNINGS FOR USE IN ANIMALS ONLY. NOT FOR HUMAN USE. KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN. NOT FOR USE IN CHICKENS OR TURKEYS.
Cattle intended for human consumption must not be slaughtered within 18 days from the last treatment. This drug is not approved for use in female dairy cattle 20 months of age or older, including dry dairy cows. Use in these cattle may cause drug residues in milk and/or in calves born to these cows.
Swine intended for human consumption must not be slaughtered within 5 days from the last treatment.
The effects of TULISSIN 100 on bovine reproductive performance, pregnancy, and lactation have not been determined. Subcutaneous injection can cause a transient local tissue reaction that may result in trim loss of edible tissue at slaughter.
The effects of TULISSIN 100 on porcine reproductive performance, pregnancy, and lactation have not been determined. Intramuscular injection can cause a transient local tissue reaction that may result in trim loss of edible tissue at slaughter.
In one BRD field study, two calves treated with tulathromycin injection at 2.5 mg/kg BW exhibited transient hypersalivation. One of these calves also exhibited transient dyspnea, which may have been related to pneumonia.
In one field study, one out of 40 pigs treated with tulathromycin injection at 2.5 mg/kg BW exhibited mild salivation that resolved in less than four hours.
POST APPROVAL EXPERIENCE
The following adverse events are based on post approval adverse drug experience reporting. Not all adverse events are reported to the FDA CVM. It is not always possible to reliably estimate the adverse event frequency or establish a causal relationship to product exposure using these data. The following adverse events are listed in decreasing order of reporting frequency in cattle: Injection site reactions and anaphylaxis/anaphylactoid reactions.
For additional information about adverse drug experience reporting for animal drugs, contact FDA at 1-888-FDA-VETS or http://www.fda.gov/reportanimalae.
At physiological pH, tulathromycin (a weak base) is approximately 50 times more soluble in hydrophilic than hydrophobic media. This solubility profile is consistent with the extracellular pathogen activity typically associated with the macrolides.1 Markedly higher tulathromycin concentrations are observed in the lungs as compared to the plasma. The extent to which lung concentrations represent free (active) drug was not examined. Therefore, the clinical relevance of these elevated lung concentrations is undetermined.
Although the relationship between tulathromycin and the characteristics of its antimicrobial effects has not been characterized, as a class, macrolides tend to be primarily bacteriostatic, but may be bactericidal against some pathogens.2 They also tend to exhibit concentration independent killing; the rate of bacterial eradication does not change once serum drug concentrations reach 2 to 3 times the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the targeted pathogen. Under these conditions, the time that serum concentrations remain above the MIC becomes the major determinant of antimicrobial activity. Macrolides also exhibit a post-antibiotic effect (PAE), the duration of which tends to be both drug and pathogen dependent. In general, by increasing the macrolide concentration and the exposure time, the PAE will increase to some maximal duration. Of the two variables, concentration and exposure time, drug concentration tends to be the most powerful determinant of the duration of PAE.
Tulathromycin is eliminated from the body primarily unchanged via biliary excretion.
1 Carbon, C. 1998. Pharmacodynamics of Macrolides, Azalides, and Streptogramins: Effect on Extracellular Pathogens. Clin. Infect. Dis., 27:28-32.
2 Nightingale, C.J. 1997. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Newer Macrolides. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 16:438-443.
Following subcutaneous administration into the neck of feeder calves at a dosage of 2.5 mg/kg BW, tulathromycin is rapidly and nearly completely absorbed. Peak plasma concentrations generally occur within 15 minutes after dosing and product relative bioavailability exceeds 90%. Total systemic clearance is approximately 170 mL/hr/kg. Tulathromycin distributes extensively into body tissues, as evidenced by volume of distribution values of approximately 11 L/kg in healthy ruminating calves.3 This extensive volume of distribution is largely responsible for the long elimination half-life of this compound [approximately 2.75 days in the plasma (based on quantifiable terminal plasma drug concentrations) versus 8.75 days for total lung concentrations (based on data from healthy animals)]. Linear pharmacokinetics are observed with subcutaneous doses ranging from 1.27 mg/kg BW to 5.0 mg/kg BW. No pharmacokinetic differences are observed in castrated male versus female calves.
3 Clearance and volume estimates are based on intersubject comparisons of 2.5 mg/kg BW administered by either subcutaneous or intravenous injection.
Following intramuscular administration to feeder pigs at a dosage of 2.5 mg/kg BW, tulathromycin is completely and rapidly absorbed (Tmax ~0.25 hour). Subsequently, the drug rapidly distributes into body tissues, achieving a volume of distribution exceeding 15 L/kg. The free drug is rapidly cleared from the systemic circulation (CLsystemic = 187 mL/hr/kg). However, it has a long terminal elimination half-life (60 to 90 hours) owing to its extensive volume of distribution. Although pulmonary tulathromycin concentrations are substantially higher than concentrations observed in the plasma, the clinical significance of these findings is undetermined. There are no gender differences in swine tulathromycin pharmacokinetics.
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