For Parturition Induction in Swine: For intramuscular use for parturition induction in swine. LUTALYSE Injection is indicated for parturition induction in swine when injected within 3 days of normal predicted farrowing. The response to treatment varies by individual animals with a mean interval from administration of 2 mL LUTALYSE Injection (10 mg dinoprost) to parturition of approximately 30 hours. This can be employed to control the time of farrowing in sows and gilts in late gestation.
Management Considerations: Several factors must be considered for the successful use of LUTALYSE Injection for parturition induction in swine. The product must be administered at a relatively specific time (treatment earlier than 3 days prior to normal predicted farrowing may result in increased piglet mortality). It is important that adequate records be maintained on (1) the average length of gestation period for the animals on a specific location, and (2) the breeding and projected farrowing dates for each animal. This information is essential to determine the appropriate time for administration of LUTALYSE Injection.
LUTALYSE Injection is indicated for its luteolytic effect in mares. Administer a single intramuscular injection of 1 mg per 100 lbs (45.5 kg) body weight which is usually 1 mL to 2 mL LUTALYSE Injection. This luteolytic effect can be utilized to control the timing of estrus in estrous cycling and clinically anestrous mares that have a corpus luteum in the following circumstances:
1. Controlling Time of Estrus of Estrous Cycling
Mares: Mares treated with LUTALYSE Injection during diestrus (4 or more days after ovulation) will return to estrus within 2 to 4 days in most cases and ovulate 8 to 12 days after treatment. This procedure may be utilized as an aid to scheduling the use of stallions.
Mares: In extended diestrus there is failure to exhibit regular estrous cycles which is different from true anestrus. Many mares described as anestrus during the breeding season have serum progesterone levels consistent with the presence of a functional corpus luteum. A proportion of “barren”, maiden, and lactating mares do not exhibit regular estrous cycles and may be in extended diestrus. Following abortion, early fetal death and resorption, or as a result of “pseudopregnancy”, there may be serum progesterone levels consistent with a functional corpus luteum. Treatment of such mares with LUTALYSE Injection usually results in regression of the corpus luteum followed by estrus and/or ovulation. Treatment of “anestrous” mares which abort subsequent to 36 days of pregnancy may not result in return to estrus due to presence of functional endometrial cups.
User Safety: Not for human use. Keep out of the reach of children. Women of childbearing age, asthmatics, and persons with bronchial and other respiratory problems should exercise extreme caution when handling this product. In the early stages, women may be unaware of their pregnancies. Dinoprost tromethamine is readily absorbed through the skin and can cause abortion and/or bronchiospasms. Accidental spillage on the skin should be washed off immediately with soap and water.
To report suspected adverse events, for technical assistance or to obtain a copy of the Safety Data Sheet (SDS) contact Zoetis Inc. at 1-888-963-8471. For additional information about adverse drug experience reporting for animal drugs, contact FDA at 1-888-FDA-VETS or online at http://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/SafetyHealth.
Residue Warnings: No milk discard or preslaughter drug withdrawal period is required for labeled uses in cattle. No preslaughter drug withdrawal period is required for labeled uses in swine. Use of this product in excess of the approved dose may result in drug residues. Do not use in horses intended for human consumption.
Animal Safety Warnings: Severe localized clostridial infections associated with injection of LUTALYSE Injection have been reported. In rare instances, such infections have resulted in death.
Aggressive antibiotic therapy should be employed at the first sign of infection at the injection site whether localized or diffuse. Do not administer intravenously (IV) as this route may potentiate adverse reactions. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may inhibit prostaglandin synthesis; therefore this class of drugs should not be administered concurrently. Do not administer to pregnant cattle, unless abortion is desired. Cattle administered a progestin would be expected to have a reduced response to LUTALYSE Injection. Do not administer to sows and/or gilts prior to 3 days of normal predicted farrowing as an increased number of stillbirths and postnatal mortality may result. In mares, LUTALYSE Injection is ineffective when administered prior to day-5 after ovulation.
Mare pregnancy status should be determined prior to treatment since LUTALYSE Injection has been reported to induce abortion and parturition when sufficient doses were administered. Mares should not be treated if they suffer from either acute or subacute disorders of the vascular system, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory system, or reproductive tract.
Cattle: Limited salivation has been reported in some instances.
Swine: The most frequently observed side effects were erythema and pruritus, slight incoordination, nesting behavior, itching, urination, defecation, abdominal muscle spasms, tail movements, hyperpnea or dyspnea, increased vocalization, salivation, and at the 100 mg (10x) dose only, possible vomiting. These side effects are transitory, lasting from 10 minutes to 3 hours, and were not detrimental to the health of the animal.
Mares: The most frequently observed side effects are sweating and decreased rectal temperature. However, these have been transient in all cases observed and have not been detrimental to the animal.
Other reactions seen have been increase in heart rate, increase in respiration rate, some abdominal discomfort, locomotor incoordination, and lying down. These effects are usually seen within 15 minutes of injection and disappear within one hour. Mares usually continue to eat during the period of expression of side effects. One anaphylactic reaction of several hundred mares treated with LUTALYSE Injection was reported but was not confirmed.
Contact Information: To report adverse reactions call Zoetis Inc. at 1-888-963-8471.
General Biologic Activity: Prostaglandins occur in nearly all mammalian tissues. Prostaglandins, especially PGE’s and PGF’s, have been shown, in certain species, to 1) increase at time of parturition in amniotic fluid, maternal placenta, myometrium, and blood, 2) stimulate myometrial activity, and 3) to induce either abortion or parturition. Prostaglandins, especially PGF2α, have been shown to 1) increase in the uterus and blood to levels similar to levels achieved by exogenous administration which elicited luteolysis, 2) be capable of crossing from the uterine vein to the ovarian artery (sheep), 3) be related to IUD induced luteal regression (sheep), and 4) be capable of regressing the corpus luteum of most mammalian species studied to date. Prostaglandins have been reported to result in release of pituitary tropic hormones. Data suggest prostaglandins, especially PGE’s and PGF’s, may be involved in the process of ovulation and gamete transport. Also PGF2α has been reported to cause increase in blood pressure, bronchoconstriction, and smooth muscle stimulation in certain species.
Metabolism: A number of metabolism studies have been done in laboratory animals. The metabolism of tritium labeled dinoprost (3H PGF2 alpha) in the rat and in the monkey was similar.
Although quantitative differences were observed, qualitatively similar metabolites were produced. A study demonstrated that equimolar doses of 3H PGF2 alpha Tham and 3H PGF2 alpha free acid administered intravenously to rats demonstrated no significant differences in blood concentration of dinoprost. An interesting observation in the above study was that the radioactive dose of 3H PGF2 alpha rapidly distributed in tissues and dissipated in tissues with almost the same curve as it did in the serum. The half-life of dinoprost in bovine blood has been reported to be on the order of minutes. A complete study on the distribution of decline of 3H PGF2 alpha Tham in the tissue of rats was well correlated with the work done in the cow. Cattle serum collected during 24 hours after doses of 0 to 250 mg dinoprost have been assayed by RIA for dinoprost and the 15-keto metabolites. These data support previous reports that dinoprost has a halflife of minutes. Dinoprost is a natural prostaglandin. All systems associated with dinoprost metabolism exist in the body; therefore, no new metabolic, transport, excretory, binding or other systems need be established by the body to metabolize injected dinoprost.
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