EQUISUL-SDT- sulfadiazine and trimethoprim suspension
Aurora Pharmaceutical, Inc.
For use in horses only.
Approved by FDA under NADA # 141-360
Federal law (USA) restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian.
EQUISUL-SDT is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial from the potentiated sulfonamide class of chemotherapeutic agents. These two drugs block different sequential steps in the biosynthesis of nucleic acids. Sulfadiazine inhibits bacterial synthesis of dihydrofolic acid by competing with para-aminobenzoic acid. Trimethoprim blocks the production of tetrahydrofolic acid from dihydrofolic acid by reversibly inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase. The effect of the dual action is to reduce the minimum inhibitory concentration of each agent (synergism) and to convert a bacteriostatic action to a bactericidal action. Sulfadiazine is the non-proprietary name for 4-amino-N-2-pyrimidinylbenzenesulfonamide. Trimethoprim is the non-proprietary name for 5-[(3,4,5¬trimethoxyphenyl) methyl]-2,4-pyrimidinediamine.
|Figure 1. Structure of sulfadiazine|
|Figure 2. Structure of trimethoprim|
Each mL of EQUISUL-SDT contains 400 mg combined active ingredients (333 mg sulfadiazine and 67 mg trimethoprim) in an aqueous suspension.
EQUISUL-SDT is indicated for the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections in horses caused by susceptible strains of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Shake well before use.
Administer EQUISUL-SDT orally at the dosage of 24 mg combined active ingredients per kilogram body weight (10.9 mg/lb) twice daily for 10 days. EQUISUL-SDT can be administered by volume at 2.7 mL per 45.4 kg (2.7 mL/100 lb) body weight.
For 280 mL and 560 mL bottles with draw-off cap:
Remove cap. Peel off white foil backed bottle seal and replace cap. Peel off outer cap seal exposing (hole) opening. Push an oral tip syringe into the cap opening. Invert and draw out appropriate volume of EQUISUL-SDT solution. (Note: Do not remove syringe while the bottle is inverted as possible spillage may result.) Detach syringe and administer orally at the dosage of 24 mg combined active ingredients per kilogram body weight (10.9 mg/lb) twice daily for 10 days. EQUISUL-SDT can be administered by volume at 2.7 mL per 45.4 kg (2.7 mL/100 lb) body weight.
EQUISUL-SDT is contraindicated in horses with a known allergy to sulfadiazine, sulfonamide class antimicrobials, or trimethoprim.
Do not use in horses intended for human consumption.
Not for use in humans. For use in animals only. Keep this and all drugs out of the reach of children. Consult a physician in the case of accidental human exposure.
Antimicrobial drugs, including sulfonamides, can cause mild to severe allergic reactions in some individuals. Avoid direct contact of the product with the skin, eyes, mouth, and clothing. Persons with a known sensitivity to sulfonamides or trimethoprim should avoid exposure to this product. If an allergic reaction occurs (e.g., skin rash, hives, difficulty breathing, facial swelling) seek medical attention.
Prescribing antibacterial drugs in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection is unlikely to provide benefit to treated animals and may increase the risk of development of drug-resistant animal pathogens.
The administration of antimicrobials, including sulfadiazine and trimethoprim, to horses under conditions of stress may be associated with acute diarrhea that can be fatal. If acute diarrhea or persistent changes in fecal consistency are observed, additional doses of EQUISUL-SDT should not be administered and appropriate therapy should be initiated.
The safe use of EQUISUL-SDT has not been evaluated in breeding, pregnant, or lactating horses. Potentiated sulfonamides should only be used in pregnant or lactating mares when the benefits to the mare justify the risks to the fetus. Use of potentiated sulfonamides during pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk of congenital abnormalities that may be related to folate deficiency. In humans, sulfonamides pass through the placenta, are excreted in milk, and may cause hyperbilirubinemia-induced neurotoxicity in nursing neonates.
Decreased hematopoetic activity and blood dyscrasias have been associated with the use of elevated doses and/or prolonged administration of potentiated sulfonamides. EQUISUL-SDT should be discontinued if prolonged clotting times, or decreased platelet, white blood cell or red blood cell counts are observed.
Sulfonamides should be used with caution in horses with impaired hepatic function. Although rare, sulfonamide use has been associated with fulminant hepatic necrosis in humans.
Neurologic abnormalities have been reported in several species following administration of potentiated sulfonamides. In horses, potentiated sulfonamides have been associated with gait alterations and behavior changes that resolved after discontinuation of the drug.
The safe use of EQUISUL-SDT has not been evaluated in horses less than 1 year of age.
Adverse reactions reported during a field study of 270 horses of various breeds, ranging from 1 to 25 years of age, which had been treated with either EQUISUL-SDT (n = 182) or with a saline control (n = 88) are summarized in Table 1. At least one episode of loose stool of varying severity was observed in 69 of 182 (38%) of the EQUISUL-SDT-treated horses, and 29 of 88 (33%) saline control horses. Of those animals experiencing loose stool, 2 of 182 (1.1%) of the EQUISUL-SDT-treated horses and 0 of 88 (0%) placebo-treated horses were removed from the study due to diarrhea (defined as at least one episode of watery stool). Both cases of diarrhea in this study were self-limiting and resolved without treatment within 5–10 days after discontinuation of EQUISUL-SDT.
|Adverse Reactions||Equisul-SDT(n=182)||Saline control(n=88)|
|Loose stool (including diarrhea)||69 (38%)||29 (33%)|
|Colic||3 (1.6%)||2 (2.2%)|
|Diarrhea||2 (1.1%)||0 (0%)|
To report suspected adverse events, for technical assistance or to obtain a copy of the SDS, contact Aurora Pharmaceutical, Inc. at 1-888-215-1256 or www.aurorapharmaceutical.com. For additional information about adverse drug experience reporting for animal drugs, contact FDA at 1-888-FDA-VETS or online at www.fda. gov/reportanimalae.
Following oral administration, EQUISUL-SDT is rapidly absorbed and widely distributed throughout body tissues. Sulfadiazine levels are usually highest in the kidney, while the tissue concentration in other tissues is only slightly lower than plasma concentrations. Concentrations of trimethoprim are usually higher in the lungs, kidney, and liver than in the blood. Sulfadiazine and trimethoprim are both eliminated primarily by renal excretion, both by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. Urine concentrations of both sulfadiazine and trimethoprim are several-fold higher than blood concentrations.1 Sulfadiazine and trimethoprim are 20% and 35% bound to plasma protein, respectively. Administration of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim with food has no apparent effect on absorption of sulfadiazine but the absorption of trimethoprim is decreased.
Based on a study in fed horses, trimethoprim concentrations following repeat oral administration of 24 mg/kg EQUISUL-SDT to 6 horses reached peak concentration in 0.5 to 12.0 hours. The median plasma elimination half-life was 3 hours, with a range of 2.31 to 4.96 hours. Peak sulfadiazine concentrations were reached within 1.0 to 12.0 hours in the same study. The median plasma elimination half-life for sulfadiazine was approximately 7.80 hours, with a range of 6.78 to 10.39 hours. Only minor accumulation of both drugs was observed following repeat oral administration of EQUISUL-SDT and both drugs reached steady state by day 3. Sulfadiazine and trimethoprim key steady state parameters associated with administration in 6 fed horses over a period of 7 days are found in Table 2.
|AUC 012 (last dose)(hr*µg/mL)||159.35(73.90282.54)||5.47(3.3110.91)|
|T 1/2(hr)||7.80(6.7810.39)|| |
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