Enrofloxacin Flavored: Product Information (Page 2 of 4)

Pharmockinetics:

In dogs, the absorption and elimination characteristics of the oral formulation are linear (plasma concentrations increase proportionally with dose) when enrofloxacin is administered at up to 11.5 mg/kg, twice daily.2 Approximately 80% of the orally administered dose enters the systemic circulation unchanged. The eliminating organs, based on the drug’s body clearance time, can readily remove the drug with no indication that the eliminating mechanisms are saturated. The primary route of excretion is via the urine. The absorption and elimination characteristics beyond this point are unknown. In cats, no oral absorption information is available at other than 2.5 mg/kg, administered orally as a single dose. Saturable absorption and/or elimination processes may occur at greater doses. When saturation of the absorption process occurs, the plasma concentration of the active moiety will be less than predicted, based on the concept of dose proportionality.

Following an oral dose in dogs of 2.5 mg/kg (1.13 mg/lb), enrofloxacin reached 50% of its maximum serum concentration in 15 minutes and peak serum level was reached in one hour. The elimination half-life in dogs is approximately 2½ — 3 hours at that dose, while in cats it is greater than 4 hours. In a study comparing dogs and cats, the peak concentration and the time to peak concentration were not different.

A graph indicating the mean serum levels following a dose of 2.5 mg/kg (1.13 mg/lb) in dogs (oral and intramuscular) and cats (oral) is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1
(click image for full-size original)

Figure 1 — Serum Concentrations of Enrofloxacin Following a Single Oral or Intramuscular Dose at 2.5 mg/kg in Dogs and a Single Oral Dose at 2.5 mg/kg in Cats.

Breakpoint: Based on pharmacokinetic studies of enrofloxacin in dogs and cats after a single oral administration of 2.5 mg enrofloxacin/kg BW (i.e. half of the lowest-end single daily dose range for dogs and half the single daily dose for cats) and the data listed in Tables I and II, the following breakpoints are recommended for canine and feline isolates.

Zone Diameter (mm) MIC (g/mL) Interpretation
≥ 21 ≤ 0.5Susceptible (S)
18 — 20 1Intermediate (I)
≤ 17≥ 2Resistant (R)

A report of “Susceptible” indicates that the pathogen is likely to be inhibited by generally achievable plasma levels. A report of “Intermediate” is a technical buffer and isolates falling into this category should be retested. Alternatively the organism may be successfully treated if the infection is in a body site where drug is physiologically concentrated. A report of “Resistant” indicates that the achievable drug concentrations are unlikely to be inhibitory and other therapy should be selected.

Standardized procedures require the use of laboratory control organisms for both standardized disk diffusion assays and standardized dilution assays. The 5 μg enrofloxacin disk should give the following zone diameters and enrofloxacin powder should provide the following MIC values for reference strains.

QC strain MIC (μg/mL) Zone Diameter (mm)
E. coli ATCC 25922 0.008 — 0.0332 — 40
P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 1 — 415 — 19
S. aureus ATCC 25923 27 — 31
S. aureus ATCC 292130.03 — 0.12

INDICATIONS:

Enrofloxacin Flavored Tablets are indicated for the management of diseases associated with bacteria susceptible to enrofloxacin. Enrofloxacin Flavored Tablets are indicated for use in dogs and cats.

EFFICACY CONFIRMATION:

Dogs: Clinical efficacy was established in dermal infections (wounds and abscesses) associated with susceptible strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis , and Staphylococcus intermedius ; respiratory infections (pneumonia, tonsillitis, rhinitis) associated with susceptible strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus ; and urinary cystitis associated with susceptible strains of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis , and Staphylococcus aureus.

Cats: Clinical efficacy was established in dermal infections (wounds and abscesses) associated with susceptible strains of Pasteurella multocida , Staphylococcus aureus , and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

CONTRAINDICATIONS:

Enrofloxacin is contraindicated in dogs and cats known to be hypersensitive to quinolones.

Dogs: Based on the studies discussed under the section on Animal Safety Summary, the use of enrofloxacin is contraindicated in small and medium breeds of dogs during the rapid growth phase (between 2 and 8 months of age). The safe use of enrofloxacin has not been established in large and giant breeds during the rapid growth phase. Large breeds may be in this phase for up to one year of age and the giant breeds for up to 18 months. In clinical field trials utilizing a daily oral dose of 5.0 mg/kg, there were no reports of lameness or joint problems in any breed. However, controlled studies with histological examination of the articular cartilage have not been conducted in the large or giant breeds.

ADVERSE REACTIONS:

Dogs: Two of the 270 (0.7%) dogs treated with enrofloxacin at 5.0 mg/kg per day in the clinical field studies exhibited side effects, which were apparently drug-related. These two cases of vomition were self-limiting.

Post-Approval Experience: The following adverse experiences, although rare, are based on voluntary postapproval adverse drug experience reporting. The categories of reactions are listed in decreasing order of frequency by body system.

Gastrointestinal: anorexia, diarrhea, vomiting, elevated liver enzymes

Neurologic: ataxia, seizures

Behavioral: depression, lethargy, nervousness

Cats: No drug-related side effects were reported in 124 cats treated with enrofloxacin at 5.0 mg/kg per day for 10 days in clinical field studies.

Post-Approval Experience: The following adverse experiences, although rare, are based on voluntary postapproval adverse drug experience reporting. The categories of reactions are listed in decreasing order of frequency by body system.

Ocular: Mydriasis, retinal degeneration (retinal atrophy, attenuated retinal vessels, and hyperreflective tapeta have been reported), loss of vision. Mydriasis may be an indication of impending or existing retinal changes.

Gastrointestinal: vomiting, anorexia, elevated liver enzymes, diarrhea

Neurologic: ataxia, seizures

Behavioral: depression, lethargy, vocalization, aggression

To report suspected adverse drug events, for technical assistance or to obtain a copy of the Safety Data Sheet, contact Covetrus North America at (855) 724-3461. For additional information about adverse drug experience reporting for animal drugs, contact FDA at 1-888-FDA-VETS or http://www.fda.gov/reportanimalae.

ANIMAL SAFETY SUMMARY:

Dogs: Adult dogs receiving enrofloxacin orally at a daily dosage rate of 52 mg/kg for 13 weeks had only isolated incidences of vomition and inappetence. Adult dogs receiving the tablet formulation for 30 consecutive days at a daily treatment of 25 mg/kg did not exhibit significant clinical signs nor were there effects upon the clinical chemistry, hematological or histological parameters. Daily doses of 125 mg/kg for up to 11 days induced vomition, inappetence, depression, difficult locomotion and death while adult dogs receiving 50 mg/kg/day for 14 days had clinical signs of vomition and inappetence.

Adult dogs dosed intramuscularly for three treatments at 12.5 mg/kg followed by 57 oral treatments at 12.5 mg/kg, all at 12 hour intervals, did not exhibit either significant clinical signs or effects upon the clinical chemistry, hematological or histological parameters.

Oral treatment of 15 to 28 week old growing puppies with daily dosage rates of 25 mg/kg has induced abnormal carriage of the carpal joint and weakness in the hindquarters.

Significant improvement of clinical signs is observed following drug withdrawal. Microscopic studies have identified lesions of the articular cartilage following 30 day treatments at either 5, 15 or 25 mg/kg in this age group. Clinical signs of difficult ambulation or associated cartilage lesions have not been observed in 29 to 34 week old puppies following daily treatments of 25 mg/kg for 30 consecutive days nor in 2 week old puppies with the same treatment schedule.

Tests indicated no effect on circulating microfilariae or adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) when dogs were treated at a daily dosage rate of 15 mg/kg for 30 days. No effect on cholinesterase values was observed.

No adverse effects were observed on reproductive parameters when male dogs received 10 consecutive daily treatments of 15 mg/kg/day at 3 intervals (90, 45 and 14 days) prior to breeding or when female dogs received 10 consecutive daily treatments of 15 mg/kg/day at 4 intervals: between 30 and 0 days prior to breeding, early pregnancy (between 10th & 30th days), late pregnancy (between 40th & 60th days), and during lactation (the first 28 days).

Cats: Cats in age ranges of 3 to 4 months and 7 to 10 months received daily treatments of 25 mg/kg for 30 consecutive days with no adverse effects upon the clinical chemistry, hematological or histological parameters. In cats 7-10 months of age treated daily for 30 consecutive days, 2 of 4 receiving 5 mg/kg, 3 of 4 receiving 15 mg/kg, 2 of 4 receiving 25 mg/kg and 1 of 4 nontreated controls experienced occasional vomition. Five to 7 month old cats had no side effects with daily treatments of 15 mg/kg for 30 days, but 2 of 4 animals had articular cartilage lesions when administered 25 mg/kg per day for 30 days.

Doses of 125 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days to adult cats induced vomition, depression, incoordination and death while those receiving 50 mg/kg for 6 days had clinical signs of vomition, inappetence, incoordination and convulsions, but they returned to normal.

Enrofloxacin was administered to thirty-two (8 per group), six- to eight-month-old cats at doses of 0, 5, 20, and 50 mg/kg of body weight once a day for 21 consecutive days. There were no adverse effects observed in cats that received 5 mg/kg body weight of enrofloxacin. The administration of enrofloxacin at 20 mg/kg body weight or greater caused salivation, vomition, and depression. Additionally, dosing at 20 mg/kg body weight or greater resulted in mild to severe fundic lesions on ophthalmologic examination (change in color of the fundus, central or generalized retinal degeneration), abnormal electroretinograms (including blindness), and diffuse light microscopic changes in the retina.

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