CLOMIPRAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE- clomipramine hydrochloride tablet
Mizner Bioscience, LLC
Federal (USA) law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian.
Clomipramine Hydrochloride Tablets belong to the dibenzazepine class of tricyclic antidepressants. Clomipramine hydrochloride is 3-chloro-5[3-(dimethyl-amino)propyl]-10,11 dihydro-5H dibenz[b,f]azepine monohydrochloride. Clomipramine Hydrochloride Tablets are oblong, light brown in color and contain clomipramine hydrochloride formulated together with meat components. The molecular weight of clomipramine hydrochloride is 351.3. The structural formula is:The structural formula for Clomipramine hydrochloride.
Clomipramine hydrochloride reduces the clinical signs of separation anxiety by affecting serotonergic and noradrenergic neuronal transmission in the central nervous system. While clomipramine hydrochloride can cause lethargy in dogs (see Adverse Reactions) its mode of action is not as a sedative. Clomipramine hydrochloride’s capacity to inhibit re-uptake of serotonin in the central nervous system is believed to be the primary mechanism of action. Clomipramine hydrochloride is rapidly absorbed when administered orally. A single-dose crossover study involving 12 dogs evaluated clomipramine hydrochloride bioavailability after IV (2 mg/kg) and oral (4 mg/kg) administration in either a fed or fasted state. The administration of clomipramine hydrochloride in the presence of food resulted in an increase in the rate and extent of drug absorption as shown in the following table (mean ±SD):
|AUC0-inf (nmol hr/L)||Cmax (nmol/L)||Tmax (hr)||AbsoluteBioavailability(F)|
|Fed||1670 ± 575||601 ± 286||1.18 ± 0.32||0.21 ± 0.07|
|Fasted||1350 ± 447||379 ± 154||1.31 ± 0.32||0.17 ± 0.05|
The absolute bioavailability is approximately 25% greater in fed dogs. The apparent terminal plasma half-life ranges from approximately 2 to 9 hours in fed and 3 to 21 hours in fasted dogs. The difference and variability in apparent half-life estimates may be attributable to prolonged drug absorption in the fasted state. The relatively large volume of distribution (3.8 ±0.8 L/kg) suggests that the drug is widely distributed throughout the body. Clomipramine is primarily metabolized in the liver.
Indications & Usage:
Clomipramine Hydrochloride Tablets are to be used as part of a comprehensive behavioral management program to treat separation anxiety in dogs greater than 6 months of age. Inappropriate barking or destructive behavior, as well as inappropriate elimination (urination or defecation) may be alleviated by the use of Clomipramine Hydrochloride Tablets in conjunction with behavior modification.
Separation anxiety is a complex behavior disorder displayed when the owner (or other attachment figure) leaves the dog. The signs of separation anxiety evaluated in controlled trials were vocalization, destructive behavior, excessive salivation, and inappropriate elimination. In the absence of the owner or attachment figure, dogs with separation anxiety may exhibit one or more of these clinical signs. Although the owner (attachment figure) may inadvertently misinterpret this behavior, which only happens in their absence, as spiteful, it is thought to be the result of anxiety experienced by the dog. Punishment is not considered appropriate for a dog with separation anxiety.
Proper recognition of clinical signs, including a complete patient history and assessment of the patient’s household environment, is essential to accurately diagnose and treat separation anxiety.
The use of Clomipramine Hydrochloride Tablets should not replace appropriate behavioral and environmental management but should be used to facilitate a comprehensive behavior management program.
Clomipramine Hydrochloride Tablets are contraindicated in dogs with known hypersensitivity to clomipramine or other tricyclic antidepressants.
Clomipramine Hydrochloride Tablets should not be used in male breeding dogs. Testicular hypoplasia was seen in dogs treated for 1 year at 12.5 times the maximum daily dose.
Clomipramine Hydrochloride Tablets should not be given in combination, or within 14 days before or after treatment with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor [e.g. selegiline hydrochloride (L-deprenyl),amitraz].
Clomipramine Hydrochloride Tablets are contraindicated for use in dogs with a history of seizures or concomitantly with drugs which lower the seizure threshold.
Not for use in humans. Keep out of reach of children. In case of accidental ingestion seek medical attention immediately. In children, accidental ingestion should be regarded as serious. There is no specific antidote for clomipramine. Overdose in humans causes anticholinergic effects including effects on the central nervous (e.g., convulsions) and cardiovascular (e.g., arrhythmia, tachycardia) systems. People with known hypersensitivity to clomipramine should administer the product with caution.
General: Clomipramine Hydrochloride Tablets are not recommended for other behavior problems, such as aggression (see Adverse Reactions). Studies to establish the safety and efficacy of clomipramine hydrochloride tablets in dogs less than 6 months of age have not been conducted.
Diagnosis: It is critical to conduct a comprehensive physical examination, including appropriate laboratory tests, and to obtain a thorough history and assessment of the patient’s household environment, to rule-out causes of inappropriate behavior unrelated to separation anxiety before prescribing Clomipramine Hydrochloride Tablets. Periodic reassessment of hematological and serum biochemical data during the administration of this medication is advised. Veterinarians should be familiar with the risks and benefits of the treatment of behavioral disorders in dogs before initiating therapy. Inappropriate use of Clomipramine Hydrochloride Tablets, i.e., in the absence of a diagnosis or without concurrent behavioral modification, may expose the animal to unnecessary adverse effects and may not provide any lasting benefit of therapy.
Recommendations on the interaction between clomipramine and other medications are extrapolated from data generated in humans. Plasma levels of tricyclic antidepressants have been reported to be decreased by the concomitant administration of hepatic enzyme inducers (e.g., barbiturates, phenytoin); therefore plasma concentrations of clomipramine may be decreased by the concomitant administration of phenobarbital. Plasma levels of closely related tricyclic antidepressants have been reported to be increased by the concomitant administration of hepatic enzyme inhibitors (e.g., cimetidine, fluoxetine). Tricyclic antidepressants themselves may exhibit hepatic enzyme inhibition and possibly increase plasma levels of barbiturates (phenobarbital). Caution is advised in using clomipramine with anticholinergic or sympathomimetic drugs or with other CNS-active drugs, including general anesthetics and neuroleptics.
Prior to elective surgery with general anesthetics, clomipramine should be discontinued for as long as clinically feasible.
Use with caution in dogs with cardiovascular disease. At 20 mg/kg/day (5X the maximum recommended dose), bradycardia and arrhythmias (atrioventricular node block and ventricular extrasystole) were observed in dogs. Because of its anticholinergic properties, clomipramine should be used with caution in patients with increased intraocular pressure, a history of narrow angle glaucoma, urinary retention or reduced gastrointestinal motility. Because clomipramine is principally metabolized in the liver, caution is advised in using this medication in the presence of preexisting liver disease.
Safety studies to determine the effects of clomipramine hydrochloride tablets in pregnant or lactating female dogs have not been conducted. Clomipramine Hydrochloride Tablets should not be used in breeding males (see Contraindications).
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